THE LASTING LEGACY OF THE DEEP RIVER FINNS

by Sandra Johnson Witt *



Deep River, Washington

 

The town of Deep River is located on the Lower Columbia River in the Columbia River basin in Wahkiakum County in southwestern Washington near the Oregon border. It is approximately 145 miles southwest of Seattle and 65 miles northwest of Portland, Oregon.

 

 

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CONTENTS
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II. THE LASTING LEGACY OF THE DEEP RIVER FINNS

by Sandra Johnson Witt *

Deep River, Washington

The Settlement of Deep River

Early Finnish Settlers in Deep River

The Early Deep River Community

The Lasting Legacy of the Deep River Finns

References

I. C. Arthur Appelö and Carlton Appelo: The contributions of two Swedish-Finns to Deep River, Washington and America

by Sandra Johnson Witt *

The Settlement of Deep River

 

The original settlers of Deep River were Chinook Indians who ate the plentiful salmon and hunted the elk that were also abundant in the area. The Puyallup, Chinook, Chehalis, and Nisqually tribes lived in Wahkiakum County. These tribes fished and gathered food for their survival. They were gradually displaced by early white settlers, primarily from New England and some European immigrants, who were involved in the local fishing and lumber industries. The Indians subsequently moved upstream to the Altoona-Pillar Rock area to continue their involvement with salmon fishing.

Certain American communities attracted groups of Finnish and other Scandinavian immigrants. Finnish immigrants settled in Minnesota and in the mining areas of Michigan. Finns who already lived in the United States attracted friends and family members from their former home districts. Also, agents from the U.S. and Canadian mining and shipping companies encouraged young men and women to emigrate from Finland to North America.

In the 1800s many people from the eastern U.S. relocated to the western states, especially California and Oregon. At the end of the 19th century, the Washington Territory remained a largely unsettled frontier. Immigration to Washington began in earnest with the growth of the lumber industry in the 1880s and the completion of the transcontinental railroad in 1893. Many settlers who came to the southwestern coast of Washington along the Columbia River were Scandinavian immigrants who were attracted to the area by the promise of good fishing, plentiful timber, and free land. In the 1900s, the Oregon Trail brought missionaries and settlers to the area. The Columbia River was the main "road" through the county.

Many Finnish immigrants were attracted to the Oregon and Washington territories because of the economic opportunities and the possibility of land ownership that these territories provided. Area pioneers built sawmills and canneries, which provided employment to many of the new residents. Dairy farming and truck farms were later sources of income.

Carlton Appelo, the son of Finnish immigrants Agnes Paju and Karl Arthur Appelö, is a noteworthy historian and scholar of southwestern Washington and of the Finnish immigrants who settled in the northwestern United States. He wrote the following in the foreword of Deep River: The C. Arthur Appelo Story (1978):

This is the history of a small town which became the center of the logging history of the lower Columbia in the early 1900s because of its location on the main artery of transportation. River boats and water transportation dominated the movement of logs until 1930 and Deep River was an ideal tidal stream which had access to the Columbia River. River transportation gave way to truck transportation as roads and highways gradually supplanted the slower mode of transport…It is difficult to write about one’s home town. Memory plays strange tricks…The author regrets sincerely the omission of many individuals from the narrative. He would welcome additional photographs and information concerning them so they may be included in a future edition. (p. 2)

Deep River was built on pilings because of the Columbia River tides, which came in twice a day. The sidewalks and roads were constructed of planks that were elevated at least six feet above high water. In 1917, Deep River had two stores, the Shamrock Hotel, a coffee shop, a community hall, a school, Pentti’s Westend Pool Hall, daily boat service to Astoria, a logging railroad, and the Deep River Holy Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church. The church was established by Reverend J. J. Hoikka and built in 1898. The community sauna was operated by Hulda and Nestor Wirkkala and located between the hotel and pool hall.

 

 

 

Summer 1911 - a town built on pilings with plank streets.

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CONTENTS
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II. THE LASTING LEGACY OF THE DEEP RIVER FINNS

by Sandra Johnson Witt *

Deep River, Washington

The Settlement of Deep River

Early Finnish Settlers in Deep River

The Early Deep River Community

The Lasting Legacy of the Deep River Finns

References

I. C. Arthur Appelö and Carlton Appelo: The contributions of two Swedish-Finns to Deep River, Washington and America

by Sandra Johnson Witt *

 

Early Finnish Settlers in Deep River

 

Many Finnish immigrants settled in Deep River and the surrounding areas of Washington. There were striking similarities between life in Finland and life in this area, including an economic life that depended largely on timber and salmon, both of which were plentiful in the Deep River area. The Pacific Northwest was an ideal destination for Finnish immigrants. There was free land that was covered with timber for them to claim. Seasonal work opportunities were available all year. There was salmon fishing in the spring and summer. Work was available at logging camps the rest of the year.

The daughter of a Finnish immigrant described the early settlement of Deep River:

When asked how the area was settled, an elderly, buxom woman replied, "First the Finns came to fish. Then when Olsons opened the logging camp, they went to Sweden and brought back men to work in the woods. The Swedes married the Finn girls. Later a few Irishmen and Poles drifted in." (Appelo, 1986, p. 110)

This woman also related that her protective Finnish father had built the family’s house in the center of their property to prevent his daughters from seeing and associating with the railroad workers. In spite of his precautions, she waved at one of the railroad brakemen, a handsome Swede. She noted that this Swedish railroad worker later became her husband.

Carlton Appelo (1978, p. 12) listed the names of some of the early Finnish settlers in the Deep River area who arrived before Washington became a state in 1889: Erik Hanson; Henrik Denson (Deep River Cemetery land donor); Isak Herajarvi; Johan Pakanen; Antti Jakob Kantola (Kandoll); Henrik Harrison (Pirila); Mikael Homstrom; Lars Loukkanen (father of August and Chas. Larson); Johan Lueeni; Johan S. Nelson (Ahola); Antti Pirila (father of Albert and Gust Pirila); Johan Erik Rull; Johan Vilmi; Erik Johnson; Karl Forsman; Erik Melin; Antti Rippa (Andrew Rinell); Simon Keko (father of Ed Simmons); Johan Parpala; Johan Salmi (Santalahti); Johan Lamppa (Johnson); Matt, Fredricka, Matti, Joseph, Rosa, and Kalle (Charles) Riippa; Matt Hakala; Matti Harpet (Haapakangas); John Haapakangas; Antti Penttila; Gust Gustafson; Peter Maata; John Ehrlund Rantala; Erik Maunula; Andrew and August Eskola; Antti Johnson (Salmi); John Laakso; Matt Puskala; Abraham Wirkkala; Matt Mathison; and John Warra (Autiovarra).

The prevalence of Finnish immigrants in the Deep River area is evidenced by the many Finnish names that are listed in a cemetery transcription that was recorded for the Deep River Cemetery, and listed on a website that is maintained by the Genealogical Society of Finland. Many Scandinavian names are also found at a Wahkiakum County cemetery transcription site maintained by the "RootsWeb" genealogy organization that lists the names of persons buried in several cemeteries in the county.

The Early Deep River Community

The two major early industries of the Washington territory, particularly in Deep River, were the timber and salmon-fishing industries.

The Timber Industry. An article in a special section of the Ilwaco, Washington Tribune in 1970 celebrated 100 years of logging at Deep River. The author, Larry Maxim, described the life of the men who worked in the timber industry and felled the gigantic trees as men who were "giants with muscles of laced steel cable and the stamina of an Olympic athlete." The men worked hard for extended periods of time and lived at the logging camps, which usually consisted of a bull barn, a cook shack, and a bunkhouse.

The bunkhouse was crude, just enough to keep out the rain. The bunks were just as crude, a few rough boards spread with straw. The logger had to do his own laundry. His laundry machine–each logger had one–was a five-gallon kerosene can in which he boiled his socks and underwear and sometimes took a sponge bath. (Maxim, 1970)

Loggers: Clockwise from upper left: 1. Deep River Loggers 2. Log Train 3. Potter Logging Company, Deep River, circa 1912 4. Potter Logging Company, Deep River, Washington 1912; Left to right - Front row: Paul Warra, unidentified, Theo. Rinell, Adolph Olin, Waino Rangila, Uno. John Jackson, unidentified, unidentified, John Manson; Back row: John Kerttola, C.A. Appelo, Charles Rull, unidentified, unidentified.

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CONTENTS
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II. THE LASTING LEGACY OF THE DEEP RIVER FINNS

by Sandra Johnson Witt *

Deep River, Washington

The Settlement of Deep River

Early Finnish Settlers in Deep River

The Early Deep River Community

The Lasting Legacy of the Deep River Finns

References

I. C. Arthur Appelö and Carlton Appelo: The contributions of two Swedish-Finns to Deep River, Washington and America

by Sandra Johnson Witt *

 

An important center of activity at the logging camps was the recreation hall, which the logging companies provided for their workers. The loggers and their families often gathered for dances that lasted until the early morning hours. Children came along too, and slept on mattresses that their parents brought.

Jessie Hindman, an Astorian Budget columnist, wrote an article about the history of the Deep River Timber Company in 1956. This company owned 4,000 acres of land located above Deep River, one of the shortest and deepest rivers in the world. The logging area contained some of the best timber in the country, including top-grade fir, spruce, hemlock, and cedar. She described how the local people and logging workers, mostly Finns and Swedes who had begun their lives here as fishermen, became the pioneers of the logging industry in this area. These early families lived together in close association with each other.

The early families along Deep River lived together in such a closely knit life that it was almost as if they had been hurled back into some clannish age. Travel was done entirely by boat as there were no roads except private ones. Towns just 50 miles away were spoken of as "The Outside." Yet, when talking to the older inhabitants of the valley, one is immediately impressed with the full realization that theirs was a happy, satisfying life. (Appelo, 1986, p. 103)

Early home life among the settlers in Deep River was simple. Kerosene lamps provided light and wood stoves provided heat. Most of the houses were made from rough unpainted boards. The women made the clothes and quilts for their families, which they washed by hand. They also planted the gardens and flower beds in addition to planning the recreational activities for their families, which included dances, picnics, boat rides, water carnivals, and playing cards. Playing cards was especially popular during the winter months when steady rainfall forced the families to stay inside. At times, the men would animate their poker games with the hard liquor or beer that they had purchased in Astoria.

Salmon Fishing. The other major early industry in Deep River was fishing. Astoria had become a major salmon-fishing area by 1870. Because of its location on the Columbia River near the Pacific Ocean, riverboats provided access to the transcontinental railroad. Astoria’s facilities had access to the Pacific Ocean on the west.

Their experiences in Finland made many of the Finnish immigrants ideally suited for successful careers in the salmon-fishing industry. The Columbia River Fishermen’s Protective Union was incorporated in 1884 and is one of the oldest conservation unions on the West Coast. In 2003, an article in the Columbia River Gillnetter, the union’s official publication, outlined its early history. "The Story of Two Hundred Fishermen" describes how a group of fishermen successfully established the Union Fishermen’s Cooperative Packing Company in 1896 during troubled economic times, when the salmon industry’s future was uncertain because of some unethical practices that had taken place for 30 years. The founders, many of whom were from Finland, risked their savings and worked hard to establish this company. They were convinced that their efforts to offer the consumers superior canned salmon would succeed. The cooperative was incorporated by Sofus Jensen, Anton Christ, Ole B. Olsen, J. W. Angberg, and Matt Raistakka:

With their savings for capital, our founders entered into the highly competitive and well-financed salmon packing industry of the Columbia…Building of the net racks, except for pile driving, was done without charge by stockholders. They received $1.50 a day working on the cannery. They were eager and capable craftsmen. Many had been brought up in Scandinavia and Finland where they had learned trades under masters. All were imbued with the cooperative movement then taking root in Western Europe. They had acquired a practical understanding of what it means to run a cooperative business successfully. (p. 19)

 

Community Life, Schools, and Churches. Many of the immigrants’ children did not learn English until they attended school. The early rural schools in the area were small. The elementary schools were usually one-room buildings that served as many as 80 pupils. It was common for one female teacher to be responsible for teaching the children in all eight grades. Teachers were generally brought into the area from the "Outside," but often married the local farmers, loggers, or fisherman and stayed in Deep River to raise their families.

Church activities were an integral part of community life. The Finnish settlers of Deep River, Naselle, and Salmon Creek organized into a congregation in 1894 as the Finnish Holy Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church. They shared a pastor with the Astoria Finnish Church. The Deep River Holy Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church was built in 1898 near the Deep River Cemetery. The church was the first organized Evangelical Lutheran Church in the area and has been officially proclaimed a National Historical Site.

Deep River Holy Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church

 

Women were deeply involved in community life. In 1906, the female members of Naselle Church formed the Nasellin Ompelu Seura (Naselle Sewing Circle), which functioned for 71 years to support missions and hospitals, with an emphasis on salvation and benevolence.

Naselle Sewing Circle

Athletic Activities and Music. Finnish immigrants knew how to work hard, but they also knew how to play hard. They actively participated in all aspects of Deep River community life, including athletic activities. Baseball was especially popular. Most of the members of the official Deep River team, the "Coyotes," were Finnish loggers and fishermen. The team had a very successful pitcher, Arvo Davis, and catcher, Arthur Anderson.

Deep River baseball team circa 1919. Standing, left to right: Arvo Davis, Art Anderson, Isaac Pouttu, Charles F. Wirkkala, Oscar Lassila. Seated: Albert Rangila, Andrew Mattson, Don Rinell, Neil Rinell, Charles Pouttu.

 

Athletic activities, including footraces and baseball, were often held on the boardwalk road from the Deep River landing to Pentti’s Pool Hall. When the weather was good, Fred Pentti was often observed sitting on a bench in front of the pool hall to view the athletic events.

The Swedes used to sit on the railing on one side and the Finns on the other–hurling insults at one another. When things got too rough, Pentti would wind up his phonograph and play some nice accordion music. Even the kids were allowed to come down and listen to the music. (Appelo, 1997, p.1)

The Finns have always enjoyed music. Many of the Finnish settlers were accomplished musicians. Axel Larson, a well-known fiddler from the Olson’s Logging Camp, played for hundreds of dances with his wife Matilda, who played the piano, and his brother Ernest on the accordion. Charles Hertzen, a talented violinist, and Fred George, who played the guitar, later joined their band. Axel liked to relate their experience of leaving the logging camp by pump cars (also known as hand speeders, operated on railroad tracks) with their musical instruments, and pumping their way four miles to Deep River:

They transferred to row boats and rowed two miles to Svenson’s Landing, then walked nearly six miles by road (carrying their dress shoes in the pocket of their coats) wearing boots. Arriving at Meserve’s store they climbed the stairs to the large hall on the second floor to play for a local crowd plus the ten dancers they brought with them. This lasted until 3 a.m. and they retraced their route only to find that the railroad rails had become frosted. The hand speeders had to be pushed rather than pumped over the slippery areas. They arrived back at Olson’s camp in time to hear the breakfast bell at the cook house. Some of the men had to go to work for a full day in falling timber. (Appelo, 1978, p. 41)

Axel Larson, long-time employee of Deep River Logging Company, playing his fiddle as he did for countless local dances in southwest Washington. The photograph was taken at the Pioneer Loggers Picnic at Evergreen Park on Salmon Creek in July 1971. Delbert Anderson (arms folded on left) was the master of ceremonies. He is the son of Arthur Anderson, an early Deep River logger and long-time catcher on the Deep River baseball team.

World War I. Twenty five years after the Washington territory became a state, the young Finnish immigrant men were asked to defend their new country in World War I. Carlton Appelo (1978) cites an article from the June 1917 edition of the Deep River newspaper:

A party of well known young men residing in Deep River were en route to Cathlamet to take physical exams for the selective service under which they were recently called to colors.

363 Arthur C. Appelo

368 Henry J. Johnson

373 Henry W. Lassila

379 Jacob W. Matta

383 Charles L. Eskola

388 Charles Koski

390 Arvo Davis

All seven are fine specimens of physical manhood and will no doubt pass the required examinations enabling them to enter the military service with the national army which is to be mobilized in the near future. (p. 78)

Accomplishments of Early Finnish Immigrants. Many of the children of the Finnish immigrants were able to move into professional careers through hard work and steadfast personal dedication to education. At times they pursued adult education programs at night while they worked during the day to make a living for themselves and their families.

In a brief history of Finnish settlements along the Columbia River that Carlton Appelo prepared for the 1999 FinnFest USA, he listed the accomplishments of several Finnish immigrants to the Deep River area, B. S. Sjoborg, Erikki Maunula, and Oscar Wirkkala. B. S. Sjoborg (1841-1923) immigrated from Kristinestad. He was the cannery foreman at Astoria in 1875. After changing his name to Seaborg, he founded the Aberdeen Packing Company at Ilwaco and Aberdeen. He was Washington’s first senator when it became a state in 1889. Erikki Maunula–who invented numerous devices that were used in the salmon-canning industry–donated land for the Deep River Holy Trinity Evangelical Lutheran Church. The church has been designated a National Historical Site. Oscar Wirkkala (1881-1959) was an extremely successful inventor of items used in the logging industry. He held more than 20 patents, including the Wirkkala choker hook, the Wirkkala propeller, and the widely-used skyline logging system.

In addition to the considerable professional accomplishments of many of the Finnish immigrants, certain aspects of the Finnish culture that the immigrants brought with them contributed to the culture of Deep River and the surrounding area. In addition to the immigrants’ willingness to work hard to improve the future lives of their families, there was a pervasive sense of community and mutual respect among the Finnish immigrants. This sense of community could be observed in all types of activities, including those related to the area schools, churches, athletics, and social events.

Many immigrant Finns became prominent entrepreneurs in business in industry as well as professional fields, but it was the rural Finnish immigrant who created a sense of community. Neighbors came to the rescue when misfortune hit, and food was shared at school gatherings or social events. Attendance at Cottage Church Services was done without worrying about denominational sponsors. It is that same familial spirit uniting entire communities that survives today. We care about each other. (Appelo, 1999, p. 1)

The Finnish immigrants supported each other through difficult times. In 1918, when Fred Pentti–an immigrant from Kannus, Finland–was severely injured while working as a brakeman on the logging train, Deep River residents and businesses readily assisted him. The logging camp workers donated $5 each to him, the Deep River Land and Wharf Company donated a piece of land to him, the Olson brothers gave him lumber from their mill, and the community joined together to build a pool hall for Fred.

His business became the focal point for all types of sport including his favorite, baseball. It was the social club for many young men of the area…It was commonly called "Pentti’s College" (pronounced collitch). No one would say that moonshine didn’t change hands out front during those days of prohibition. When 3.2 beer became legal, it was Pentti’s tavern. (Appelo, 1978, p. 41)

In order to successfully farm the land, much of which was wetland, the settlers had to install dikes and extensive drainage systems. Because of the primitive roads that were generally limited to use in the summer, almost all travel was by water. The riverboat "General Washington" made daily round trips to nearby Astoria–the source of supplies, mail, and medical services to Deep River–and provided the residents with transportation to and contact with the outside world. This riverboat was built in 1909 by the North Shore Transportation Company. It served Deep River, Knappton, and Frankfort until the early 1930s, when the newly built area highway became more competitive for passenger and freight travel.


The General Washington steamship approaching Deep River Landing, circa 1915

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CONTENTS
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II. THE LASTING LEGACY OF THE DEEP RIVER FINNS

by Sandra Johnson Witt *

Deep River, Washington

The Settlement of Deep River

Early Finnish Settlers in Deep River

The Early Deep River Community

The Lasting Legacy of the Deep River Finns

References

I. C. Arthur Appelö and Carlton Appelo: The contributions of two Swedish-Finns to Deep River, Washington and America

by Sandra Johnson Witt *

The labor of immigrants was essential in order to build the infrastructure of North America. The immigrants cut timber and cleared land to build their homes and farms. Because there were no roads (only rivers) in the early Deep River area, travel was usually by foot or boat. The immigrants (and their horses) worked hard to build the roads in their new country.

 

 

Immigrant road builders

 

 

Ironically, the advent of the better roads that the Deep River citizens had worked so hard to construct resulted in a decline in the town. Construction of the bridge one mile downstream from the Deep River landing diverted traffic away from the main part of town. The railroad that had provided economic resources and brought people to the town was doomed by the use of trucks to transport lumber. Although the improved roads relieved the isolation of the area, they brought an end to the riverboat era. Trucks replaced the boats as the main means of transporting various types of cargo to and from the community. The Deep River Timber Company ceased operating in 1956. The elementary school was consolidated with other schools. The movie house and Pentti’s Tavern closed. The Shamrock Hotel had depended on the loggers as boarders, and was forced to close. Only local residences, the post office, and Appelo’s General Merchandise and Insurance Agency remained in Deep River.

 

The Lasting Legacy of the Deep River Finns

 

Harriet Alta Meserve was a Deep River resident and writer who researched and interviewed many area pioneers. Carlton Appelo (1986) presented a poem that she wrote about the Finnish settlers, Pioneers — Farthermost they Followed, that illustrates how the Finnish immigrants faced daunting circumstances as they attempted to settle the rugged land in the Northwest, how deeply they felt about their native country and–at the same time–how devoted they were to their new country:

Forever moving westward, the sturdy pioneers,
Found the way and blazed a trail to our farthermost frontiers,
Fishing and hunting and trapping, they followed the pioneer way,
Clearing the ground for a garden, adding a little each day,
Laying a log foundation, building of hand rived shakes,
Ah! Those early men and women had all of that that it takes…


We do not know why they left their homes
To live in a distant field,
If it held out a fairer vision
Or a more substantial yield.

But to each of them came a moment,
A single decisive day,
And one by one they departed,
Each going his separate way.

We dare not disparage those American men
Nor quest, "did their blood grow thin?"
We only know in their going,
Each one left behind him a Finn.

It soon became an invasion.
Finns poured in from every side
And began an endless battle
‘Gainst an inexorable tide.
They fringed the foothills of Deep River
Pressed on into Salmon Creek.
New faces, new ways, a new language
American tongues could not speak.

They overflowed from Salmon Creek into the Naselle
And still they were ever coming–a settler in every dell…
Soon the dredge and the shovel began a clamorous din,
To conquer the sullen shallows and let the sunshine in
Reclaiming fertile acres that long had been denied
To a man in search of a hearthstone, to which he could bring his bride.
And when the project was finished;
Each one took the piece that he liked.

And all the country was better for the land that Behnke diked.
They built their homes and cleared the ground
In the bed of the conquered stream
Their days were full of labor
But at night they had time to dream

Of Finnish lakes and grey blue sky,
Of graveyards where their parents lie;
Of time-worn paths their feet had trod;
Of churches where they learned of God.

Ah, no, the old folk ne’er forgot
The land that gave them birth
And ever the tear of memory
Shadowed them, e’en in their mirth.
And some of them always were Finnish
Some to their dying days

But the children learned the new language
And took on the foreign ways.
Two nations lived together, under the selfsame roof
For America claimed for her very own, the flower of the Finnish youth.
They speak our language, they sing our songs, they drive an American car.
They thrilled to the glory of the Flag, as their feet marched off to war.
America needs them and they will be true to the land that gave them birth.
They give allegiance and loyalty to the kindest land on earth.
And the Stars and Stripes float out on the breeze, as they have always done
A shining symbol that lives in the hearts of each Finnish American son.

(pp. 57-58)

Finnish immigrants settled in Deep River, Washington for a variety of reasons. Many immigrants settled there because of their previous experience working in the timber industry. Some immigrants had been fishermen in Finland, especially those who came from Ostrobothnia. Carlton Appelo (1978) speculated about the success of the Finnish immigrants in the settlement and development of the Deep River valley:

The clannish spirit, heritage of cooperative effort in the country, desire for knowledge, love of homemade music and social activity, great persistence in coping with the elements of nature (sometimes called sisu) and great desire to succeed by hard work (elsewhere called the Puritan work ethic) all were necessary ingredients for a successful life in the new world. There were other ethnic groups and fellow Scandinavian neighbors from Sweden, Norway and Denmark who contributed greatly to early Deep River history but the Finns seemed to set their unique stamp which remains evident today. (p. 12)

The Finnish immigrants brought a unique and valuable culture to the Deep River area, and contributed greatly to the history and development of the Deep River valley and the northwestern United States.

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CONTENTS
-----------------

II. THE LASTING LEGACY OF THE DEEP RIVER FINNS

by Sandra Johnson Witt *

Deep River, Washington

The Settlement of Deep River

Early Finnish Settlers in Deep River

The Early Deep River Community

The Lasting Legacy of the Deep River Finns

References

I. C. Arthur Appelö and Carlton Appelo: The contributions of two Swedish-Finns to Deep River, Washington and America

by Sandra Johnson Witt *

 

 

 

References

Appelo, C. E. (1978). Deep River: The C. Arthur Appelo story. Deep River, WA: Carlton E. Appelo.

Appelo, C. E. (1986). A Pioneer scrapbook of the Columbia River North-Shore Communities — Wahkiakum and Pacific Counties, Washington 1900-1985. Ilwaco, WA: Pacific Printing Co.

Appelo, C. E. (1997). CEA history. Unpublished manuscript.

Appelo, C. E. (1999). Finnish settlements along the Columbia River: History and personal recollections. Unpublished manuscript prepared for the 1999 FinnFest USA.

Hindman, J. (1986). A History of the Deep River Timber Co. In C. E. Appelo, A Pioneer scrapbook of the Columbia River North-Shore Communities — Wahkiakum and Pacific Counties, Washington 1900-1985. Ilwaco, WA: Pacific Printing Co. (Reprinted from The Astorian Budget, 1956, December 17)

Jennings, K., Wilson, J., & Cornell, M. Deep River Cemetery transcription. Retrieved July 6, 2003 from http://www.genealogia.fi/emi/emi52se.htm

Maxim, L. T. (1970, August 5). One hundred years of logging at Deep River. The Tribune. Ilwaco, WA.

Meserve, H. A. (1986). Pioneers — Farthermost they Followed. In C. E. Appelo, A Pioneer scrapbook of the Columbia River North-Shore Communities — Wahkiakum and Pacific Counties, Washington 1900-1985. Ilwaco, WA: Pacific Printing Co.

RootsWeb Volunteer Genealogy Organization (http://www.rootsweb.com). Cemetery transcription for Wahkiakum County, Washington. Retrieved July 14, 2003 from http://www.rootsweb.com/~wawahkia/cemetery.htm

Story of two hundred fishermen. (2003, April). Columbia River Gillnetter, 34(1), 18-27.

Sandy

 

 

 

By the same author:
John Victor Johnson — Odyssey from Finland to Florida

 

 

Editor and design Staffan Storteir

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